National Academy of Sciences, The,

National Academy of Sciences, The, is a society of scholars ``dedicated to the furtherance of science and its use for the general welfare.'' It was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, which empowered it to create its own organization and bylaws and called upon it to serve as an official adviser to the federal government on any question of science or technology.

Among the Academy's fifty founding members were four scientists associated with Princeton: Stephen Alexander, Arnold Guyot, Joseph Henry, and John Torrey. Henry was the Academy's second president, 1866 to 1878; and Frederick Seitz Ph.D. '34 its seventeenth, 1962 to 1969.

Two associated organizations, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine, were founded by the Academy in 1964 and 1970. The National Research Council, established in 1916, serves as the operating arm of the science and engineering academies.

New members are elected annually by the current membership in recognition of distinguished achievements in scientific research. Princeton professors who have been members of the Academy, and the years of their election, follow:*

1863 Stephen Alexander (astronomy)
Arnold Guyot (physical geography)
Joseph Henry (physics)
John Torrey (botany)
1872 Charles A. Young (astronomy)
1900 Henry Fairfield Osborn (biology)
1906 William Berryman Scott (geology)
1908 Edwin Grant Conklin (biology)
1918 Henry Norris Russell (astronomy)
1919 Augustus Trowbridge (physics)
Oswald Veblen (mathematics)
1922 Luther P. Eisenhart (mathematics)
George A. Hulett (chemistry)
1924 Karl T. Compton (physics)
1925 Solomon Lefschetz (mathematics)
1930 James W. Alexander (mathematics)
1934 E. Newton Harvey (biology)
1937 John von Neumann (mathematical physics)
1940 Ernest G. Wever (psychology)
Hermann Weyl (mathematical physics)
1943 Arthur F. Buddington Ph.D. (geology)
1945 Henry Eyring (chemistry)
Eugene P. Wigner (mathematical physics)
1950 Salomon Bochner (mathematics)
Edward C. Kendall (biochemistry)
1951 Howard P. Robertson (mathematical physics)
1952 Harry H. Hess (geology)
Lyman Spitzer, Jr. (astronomy)
John A. Wheeler (physics)
1955 Charles P. Smyth (chemistry)
1956 Martin Schwarzschild (astronomy)
Norman E. Steenrod (mathematics)
1957 Walter M. Elsasser (geophysics)
Donald F. Hornig (chemistry)
1958 Emil Artin (mathematics)
1959 Walker Bleakney (physics)
1960 William Feller (mathematics)
Hollis D. Hedberg (geology)
1961 John W. Tukey (statistics)
Donald C. Spencer (mathematics)
1963 Marvin L. Goldberger (physics)
John W. Milnor (mathematics)
Colin S. Pittendrigh (biology)
1964 Walter J. Kauzmann (chemistry)
1965 Vincent G. Dethier (biology)
1966 Val L. Fitch (physics)
1967 Philip W. Anderson (physics)
Robert H. Dicke (physics)
1968 Arthur B. Pardee (biochemistry)
1969 Robert H. MacArthur (biology)
Marshall N. Rosenbluth (astrophysics)
1970 James W. Cronin (physics)
Arthur S. Wightman (mathematical physics)
1972 Kurt M. Mislow (chemistry)
Sam B. Treiman (physics)
1973 John T. Bonner (biology)
Ansley J. Coale (demography)
John J. Hopfield (physics)
1974 Jeremiah P. Ostriker (astrophysics)
Elias M. Stein (mathematics)
1975 Stephen L. Adler (physics)
1976 John N. Bahcall (astrophysics)
Harold P. Furth (astrophysics)
1977 Julian Wolpert (geography and urban planning)

*Some fifty non-faculty alumni have also been elected, among them Arthur H. Compton, Clinton J. Davisson, Philip Bard, John R. Paul, Edwin M. McMillan, Frederick Seitz, Donald H. Menzel, John Bardeen, Richard Feynman, Robert Hofstadter, and William O. Baker.

From Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion, copyright Princeton University Press (1978).

Go to Search A Princeton Companion